Organizational performance: The role of teachers’ sense of self efficacy


  • Alice Levasseur Université Laval
  • Louise Clément Université Laval


sense of self-efficacy, organizational performance, instructional strategies, organizational citizenship behaviors, structural equation modeling


This study examines the distinct and complementary roles of the components of teachers’ sense of personal efficacy (SPE) (instructional strategies deployment, classroom management, student engagement) in relation to their organizational performance (subjective performance, organizational citizenship behaviours individuals [OCBI] and organizations [OCBO]). Data were collected from 250 college teachers in Quebec. The results of the analyses show that only the instructional strategies deployment component of the SPE predict a single component of performance, namely OCBI. The study’s findings support the separate study of SPE components in relation to teachers’ organizational performance, as they do have distinct and complementary roles on organizational performance.

Author Biographies

Alice Levasseur, Université Laval

is a doctoral student and holds a master's degree in educational administration and policy from Université Laval. She works under the supervision of Prof. Louise Clément in the Department of Fundamentals and Practices in Education. Her research focuses not only on the work motivation of teaching, non-teaching, and management staff and the manifestations it engenders, but also on psychosocial risk factors in the workplace. She conducts advanced statistical analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM) and her research is partly funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC). 

Louise Clément, Université Laval

is a full professor in the Department of Fundamentals and Practices in Education of the Faculty of Education at Université Laval. Her research focuses on the determinants of work motivation (e.g., leadership, relational trust and mistrust, organizational justice, quality of interpersonal relationships) as well as its outcomes (e.g., organizational commitment, job satisfaction, intention to quit).


Aaronson, D., Barrow, L. et Sander, W. (2007). Teachers and student achievement in the Chicago public high schools. Journal of Labor Economics, 25(1), 95-135.

Ariani, D. W. (2013). The relationship between employee engagement, organizational citizen ship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior. International Journal of Business Administration, 4(2), 46-56.

Babcock-Roberson, M. E. et Strickland, O. J. (2010). The relationship between charismatic leadership, work engagement, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Journal of Psychology, 144(3), 313-326.

Bandura, A. (1997a). Auto-efficacité. Le sentiment d’efficacité personnelle. (1e éd.; traduit par J. Lecomte). De Boeck Supérieur.

Bandura, A. (1997b). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. Freeman.

Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K. et Judge, T. A. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium: What do we know and where do we go next? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9(1‐2), 9-30.

Bateman, T. et Organ, D. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier: the relationship between affect and employee citizenship. Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 587-595.

Beauducel, A. et Herzberg, P. Y. (2006). On the performance of maximum likelihood versus means and variance adjusted weighted least squares estimation in CFA. Structural Equation Modeling, 13(2), 186-203.

Bogler, R. et Somech, A. (2004). Influence of teacher empowerment on teachers’ organizational commitment, professional commitment and organizational citizenship behavior in schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20(3), 277–289.

Bogler, R. et Somech, A. (2005). Organizational citizenship behavior in school. Journal of Educational Administration, 43(5), 420-438.

Borman, W. C., Penner, L. A., Allen, T. D. et Motowidlo, S. J. (2001). Personality predictors of citizenship performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9(1-2), 52-69.

Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P. et Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students' academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of School Psychology, 44(6), 473-490.

Chen, C. H. et Kao, R. H. (2011). A multilevel study on the relationships between work characteristics, self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and organizational citizenship behavior: The case of Taiwanese police duty-executing organizations. The Journal of Psychology, 145(4), 361-390.

Chen, G., Casper, W. J. et Cortina, J. M. (2001). The roles of self-efficacy and task complexity in the relationships among cognitive ability, conscientiousness, and work-related performance: a meta-analytic examination. Human Performance, 14(3), 209-230.

Christ, O., Van Dick, R., Wagner, U. et Stellmacher, J. (2003). When teachers go the extra mile: foci or organizational identification as determinants of different forms of organizational citizenship behavior among schoolteachers. British Journal of Education and Psychology, 73(3), 329-441.

Christophersen, K. A., Elstad, E., Solhaug, T. et Turmo, A. (2015). Explaining motivational antecedents of citizenship behavior among preservice teachers. Education Sciences, 5(2), 126-145.

Clément, L., Fernet, C., Morin, A.J.S. et Jeanrie, C. (2018a). Validation canadienne-française de l’échelle des déterminants du sentiment d’efficacité personnelle des enseignants (EDSEPE) A French-Canadian validation of the determinants of teachers’ self-efficacy scale (DTSES). Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations, 24(2), 126-143.

Clément, L., Fernet, C., Méthot, L. et Jacob, S. (2018b, 13-17 avril). Sources of Self- and Collective Teachers’ Efficacy: Could They Play Complementary Roles on Teachers’ Behavior? [Communication orale] Congrès de l’«American Educational Research Association» (AERA ; Division K - Teaching and Teacher Education), New York, NY, États-Unis.

Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E. et Byrne, Z. S. (2003). The relationship of emotional exhaustion to work attitudes, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 160-169.

DiPaola, M. F. et Da Costa Neves, P. M. (2009). Organizational citizenship behaviors in American and Portuguese public schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 47(4), 490-507.

Dussault, M. (2006). Teachers' self-efficacy and organizational citizenship behaviors. Psychological Reports, 98(2), 427-432.

Elstad, E., Christophersen, K. A. et Turmo, A. (2013). Antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior among educators in language education for adult immigrants in Norway. Adult Education Quarterly, 63(1), 78-96.

Fernet, C., Trépanier, S.-G., Austin, S., Gagné, M. et Forest, J. (2015). Transformational leadership and optimal functioning at work: On the mediating role of employees' perceived job characteristics and motivation. Work & Stress, 29(1), 11-31.

Finney, S. et DiStefano, C. (2013). Non-normal and categorical data in structural equation modeling. Dans G. Hancock et R. Mueller, Structural equation modeling: A second course, 2e Édition (p. 439–492). Information Age Publishing.

Fisher, R. J. (1993). Social desirability bias and the validity of indirect questioning. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(2), 303-315.

Fives, H. et Buehl, M. M. (2009). Examining the factor structure of the teachers’ sense of efficacy scale. The Journal of Experimental Education, 78(1), 118-134.

George, J. (1996). Group affective tone. Dans M. West, Handbook of Work Group Psychology (p. 77-94). Wiley.

George, J. M. et Brief, A. P. (1992). Feeling good-doing good: a conceptual analysis of the mood at work-organizational spontaneity relationship. Psychological Bulletin, 112(2), 310-329.

Gibbs, S. et Powell, B. (2012). Teacher efficacy and pupil behaviour: The structure of teachers’ individual and collective beliefs and their relationship with numbers of pupils excluded from school. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 564-584.

Gravelle, F. (2020). Nouvelle gouvernance scolaire: Impacts sur l'agir des professionnels de l'enseignement. Presses de l’Université du Québec.

Héon, L. (2017). Le "modèle cégep" dans la diversité mondiale : une comparaison avantageuse. Dans Association des cades des collèges du Québec, Le réseau des cégeps : trajectoires de réussites. Presses de l’Université Laval.

Hu, L. et Bentler, P. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55.

Jung, H. S. et Yoon, H. H. (2012). The effects of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behaviors and organizational citizen behaviors among food and beverage employees in a deluxe hotel. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), 369-378.

Kao, R. H. (2017). Task-oriented work characteristics, self-efficacy, and service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior: a cross-level analysis of the moderating effect of social work characteristics and collective efficacy. Personnel Review, 46(4), 718-739.

Klassen, R. M. et Chiu, M. M. (2010). Effects on teachers' self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Teacher gender, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 741-756.

Klassen, R. M. et Tze, V. M. (2014). Teachers’ self-efficacy, personality, and teaching effectiveness: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 12, 59-76.

Klassen, R. M., Bong, M., Usher, E. L., Chong, W. H., Huan, V. S., Wong, I. Y. et Georgiou, T. (2009). Exploring the validity of a teachers’ self-efficacy scale in five countries. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(1), 67-76.

Klassen, R. M., Tze, V. M., Betts, S. M. et Gordon, K. A. (2011). Teacher Efficacy Research 1998–2009: Signs of Progress or Unfulfilled Promise? Educational Psychology Review, 23(1), 21–43.

Kline, R. B. (2009). Becoming a behavioral science researcher: a guide to producing research that matters (vol. xii). Guilford Press.

Konovsky, M. A. et Organ, D. W. (1996). Dispositional and contextual determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17(3), 253-266.

Konovsky, M. A. et Pugh, S. D. (1994). Citizenship behavior and social exchange. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 656-669.

Krejcie, R. V. et Morgan, D. W. (1970). Table for determining sample size from a given population. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30 (3), 607-610.

Lent, R. W. et Brown, S. D. (1996). Social cognitive approach to career development: an overview. Career Development Quarterly, 44(4), 310–322.

Mansor, A., Darus, A. et Dali, M. (2013). Mediating effect of self-efficacy on self-leadership and teachers’ organizational citizenship behavior: A Conceptual framework. International Journal of Economics Business and Management Studies, 2(1), 1-11.

Ménard, L., Legault, F. et Dion, J.-S. (2012). Impact de la formation à l’enseignement et de l’encadrement sur le sentiment d’autoefficacité des nouveaux enseignants de cégep. Revue canadienne de l’Éducation, 35(2), 212-231.

Ministère de l'Éducation et de l'Enseignement supérieur (MEES). (2020). Répartition des enseignants du collégial public au cycle 2018‐2019. Système sur le personnel des organismes collégiaux. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec.

Moorman, R. H., Niehoff, B. P. et Organ, D. W. (1993). Treating employees fairly and organizational citizenship behavior: Sorting the effects of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and procedural justice. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 6(3), 209-225.

Morris, D. B., Usher, E. L. et Chen, J. A. (2017). Reconceptualizing the Sources of Teaching Self-Efficacy: a Critical Review of Emerging Literature. Educational Psychology Review, 29(4), 795–833.

Oplatka, I. (2006). Going beyond role expectations: Toward an understanding of the determinants and components of teacher organizational citizenship behavior. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42(3), 385-423.

O'Reilly, C. A. et Chatman, J. (1986). Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: The effects of compliance, identification, and internalization on prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 492-499.

Organ, D. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: it’s construct clean-up time. Human Performance, 10(2), 85-97.

Organ, D. W. et Konovsky, M. (1989). Cognitive versus affective determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(1), 157-164.

Organ, D. W. et Ryan, K. (1995). A meta‐analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 48(4), 775-802.

Organ, D. W. (2018). Organizational citizenship behavior: Recent trends and developments. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5(1), 295-306.

Park, K. H. et Han, J. W. (2016). Effect of nurses' mentoring function and organizational citizen behavior on nursing performance. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society, 17(2), 179-187.

Peltier, B. D. et Walsh, J. A. (1990). An investigation of response bias in the Chapman Scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 50(4), 803-815.

Podsakoff, P., Aherne, M. et MacKenzie, S. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 262-270.

Simbula, S., Guglielmi, D. et Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). A three-wave study of job resources, self-efficacy, and work engagement among Italian schoolteachers. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(3), 285–304.

Skaalvik, E. M. et Skaalvik, S. (2014). Teacher self-efficacy and perceived autonomy: Relations with teacher engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. Psychological Reports, 114(1), 68–77.

Somech, A. et Drach‐Zahavy, A. (2000). Understanding extra‐role behavior in schools: the relationships between job satisfaction, sense of efficacy and teachers' extra‐role behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(5-6), 649‐659.

Swanson, P. (2012). Second/foreign language teacher efficacy and its relationship to professional attrition. Canadian Modern Language Review, 68(1), 78-101.

Tschannen-Moran, M. et Barr, M. (2004). Fostering student learning: The relationship of collective teacher efficacy and student achievement. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 3(3), 189-209.

Tschannen-Moran, M. et Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 783–805.

Valls, M. et Bonvin, P. (2015). Auto-efficacité des enseignants: quels outils d’évaluation utiliser? Mesure et évaluation en éducation, 38(3), 1-47.

Valls, M., Bonvin, P. et Benoit, V. (2020). Psychometric properties of the French version of the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES-12f). European Review of Applied Psychology, 70(3), 1-11.

Walz, S. et Niehoff, B. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: their relationship to organizational effectiveness. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 24(3), 301-319.

Ware, H. et Kitsantas, A. (2007). Teacher and collective efficacy beliefs as predictors of professional commitment. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(5), 303-310.

Williams, L. J. et Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment as Predictors of Organizational Citizenship and In-Role Behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601-617.

Woods, P., Jeffrey, B., Troman, G. et Boyle, M. (2019). Restructuring schools, reconstructing teachers: Responding to change in the primary school. Routledge.

Yılmaz, K. et Altınkurt, Y. (2012). The relationship between organizational justice, organizational trust and organizational citizenship behaviors in secondary schools in Turkey. Dans Discretionary behavior and performance in educational organizations: The missing link in educational leadership and management. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Yu, C. Y. (2002). Evaluating cutoff criteria of model fit indices for latent variable models with binary and continuous outcomes (vol. 30). University of California.

Yu, C. Y. et Muthén, B. (2002). Evaluation of model fit indices for latent variable models with categorical and continuous outcomes. Communication dans le cadre du congrès de l’«American Educational Research Association», Nouvelle-Orléans, LA.

Zee, M. et Koomen, H. M. (2016). Teacher self-efficacy and its effects on classroom processes, student academic adjustment, and teacher well-being: A synthesis of 40 years of research. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 981-1015.

Zerbe, W. J. et Paulhus, D. L. (1987). Socially desirable responding in organizational beha

ior: A reconception. Academy of Management Review, 12(2), 250-264.



How to Cite

Levasseur, A., & Clément, L. (2022). Organizational performance: The role of teachers’ sense of self efficacy. McGill Journal of Education / Revue Des Sciences De l’éducation De McGill, 57(3), 228–250. Retrieved from