How to pay your students to go to school: Student-run record labels and the creative pedagogue
Keywords:creative pedagogue, opportunity youth, Hip-Hop Based Education, arts in education, student-run business, teaching artist, Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA)
The author examines a federally funded internship program he organized while serving as the director of the High School for Recording Arts Los Angeles program. The school paid students to operate their own record label. Under the American Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, approved organizations provide paid, for-credit internships to young people who meet the definition of opportunity youth. Through this partnership, students learned real-world skills, gained hands-on experience, and built their resumes. The author experienced a shift in his professional praxis from school leader to creative pedagogue. During the internship, the school experienced increased student attendance and enrolment, suggesting the paid internship resulted in increased opportunities for student learning. The author covers similar opportunities across the US and Canada.
Akom, A. A. (2009). Critical hip hop pedagogy as a form of liberatory praxis. Equity & Excellence in Education, 42(1), 52–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/10665680802612519
Alim, H. S. & Paris, D. (2017). What is culturally sustaining pedagogy and why does it matter? In D. Paris & H.S. Alim (Eds.). Culturally sustaining pedagogies: Teaching and learning for justice in a changing world (pp. 1–25). Teachers College Press.
Anyon, J. (1997). Ghetto schooling: A political economy of urban educational reform. Teachers College, Columbia University.
Baldwin, J. (1962/1998). The creative process. In T. Morrison (Ed.). James Baldwin: Collected essays (pp. 669–672). The Library of America.
Belfield, C. R., Levin, H. M., & Rosen, R. (2012). The economic value of opportunity youth. 1(1), 1–49. The Corporation for National and Community Service and the White House Council for Community Solutions.
Booth, E. (2009). The music teaching artist’s bible: Becoming a virtuoso educator. Oxford University Press.
Cairns, K. (2013). The subject of neoliberal affects: Rural youth envision their futures. The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe Canadien, 57(3), 337–344. https://doi.org/10.1111/cag.12012
Campbell, M. (2020). ‘Shit is hard, yo’: Young people making a living in the creative industries. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 26(4), 524–543. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2018.1547380
Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. (2015). Toolkit of promising practices that assist in the alignment of skills and education systems with the needs of the labour market. https://www.cmec.ca/Publications/Lists/Publications/Attachments/349/Toolkit_jan15-2016_EN.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). New standards and old inequalities: School reform and the education of African American students. Journal of Negro Education, 69(4), 263–287. https://doi.org/10.2307/2696245
Emdin, C., & Lee, O. (2013). Hip-hop, the "Obama effect," and urban science education. Teachers College Record, 114(2), 1–24.
Escudero, P. V. (2019). Los Angeles Unified School District Student Health and Human Services: Reference guide 2019–2020 Opening day procedures: Supplemental guide and updates. Los Angeles Unified School District. http://www.lausd.net/cdg/PupilServices/6767/story_content/external_files/REF%206767%201%20LAUSD%20CAMPUSES%20AS%20SAFE%20ZONES%20AND%20RESOURCE%20CENTERS.PDF
Gardner, H. (n.d.). Passion tempered by discipline. Unpublished remarks to the AIE Advisory Council. Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Gaztambide-Fernández, R. (2013). Why the arts don't do anything: Toward a new vision for cultural production in education. Harvard Educational Review, 83(1), 211–237. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.83.1.a78q39699078ju20
Gee, C. B. (2004). Spirit, mind, and body: Arts education the redeemer. In E.W. Eisner & M.D. Day (Eds.). Handbook of research and policy in arts education (pp. 115–134.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.
Ginwright, S., & Cammarota, J. (2007). Youth activism in the urban community: Learning critical civic praxis within community organizations. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (Qse), 20(6), 693–710.
Gould, D. & Co. (2005). Media paints arts education in a fading light. Education Commission of the States. 1–17. https://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/63/75/6375.pdf
Hill, M., & Petchauer, E. (Eds.). (2013). Schooling hip-hop: Expanding hip-hop based education across the curriculum. Teachers College Press.
Hossain, F. (2015). Serving out-of-school youth under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (2014). MDRC. https://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/Serving_Out-of-School_Youth_2015 NEW.pdf
Ibrahim, A. (2004). (Popular) culture matters - Operating under erasure: Hip-hop and the pedagogy of affective. Jct, 20(1), 113–134.
Ladson-Billings, G. (2017). The (r)evolution will not be standardized: Teacher education, hip hop pedagogy, and culturally relevant pedagogy 2.0. In Paris, D., & Alim, H. S. (Eds.). Culturally Sustaining Pedagogies: Teaching and learning for justice in a changing world (pp. 141–156). Teachers College Press.
Lipman, P. (2004). High stakes education: Inequality, globalization, and urban school reform. RoutledgeFalmer.
Love, B. (2019). We want to do more than survive: Abolitionist teaching and the pursuit of educational freedom. Beacon Press.
Love, B. (2015). What is hip-hop-based education doing in "nice" fields such as early childhood and elementary education? Urban Education, 50(1), 106–131. https://doi-org.proxy3.library.mcgill.ca/10.1177%2F0042085914563182
Moore, A. O. (2016). Reengagement: Bringing students back to America’s schools. Rowman & Littlefield.
Morris, M. W. (2016). Pushout: the criminalization of black girls in schools. New Press.
Nathan, J. (1996). Charter schools: creating hope and opportunity for American education. Jossey-Bass.
Ontario Youth Apprenticeship Program: Trades at a glance. (2019). https://oyap.ca/en/skilled_trades/trades_at_a_glance/
Orlowski, P. (2011). Teaching about hegemony: Race, class and democracy in the 21st century. Springer.
Parsons, T. (1964). Social structure and personality. Free Press of Glencoe.
Petchauer, E. (2009). Framing and reviewing hip-hop educational research. Review of Educational Research, 79(2), 946–978. https://doi.org/10.3102%2F0034654308330967
Rodriguez, L. F. (2009). Dialoguing, cultural capital, and student engagement: Toward a hip hop pedagogy in the high school and university classroom. Equity & Excellence in Education, 42(1), 20–35. https://doi.org/10.1080/10665680802584023
Rose, T. (2008). The hip hop wars: What we talk about when we talk about hip hop— and why it matters. BasicCivitas.
Seidel, S. (2013). Exploding parameters and an expanded embrace: A proposal for the arts in education in the twenty first century. Harvard Educational Review, 83(1), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.83.1.q8q24t6859494833
Seidel, S. S. (2011). Hip hop genius: Remixing high school education. Rowman & Littlefield Education.
Tamer, M. (2009). On the chopping block, again. In Ed. Magazine. Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Tyack, D. B., & Cuban, L. (1995). Tinkering toward utopia: a century of public school reform. Harvard University Press.
United States Department of Labor: Employment and Training Administration (2019). Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act: WIOA program. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/eta/youth/wioa-formula
Wong, C., & Pena, C. (2017). Policing and performing culture: Rethinking “culture” and the role of the arts in culturally sustaining pedagogies. In Paris, D., & Alim, H. S. (Eds). Culturally sustaining pedagogies: Teaching and learning for justice in a changing world (pp. 117–138). Teachers College Press.
Yosso, T. J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 8(1), 69–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/1361332052000341006
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 McGill Journal of Education / Revue des sciences de l'éducation de McGill
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Those wishing to reproduce all or part of any material published on this website are asked to email firstname.lastname@example.org for permission and to acknowledge the McGill Journal of Education as the original source.
Authors must transfer copyright of their article to MJE. Authors may use all or parts of their work in any future publication with the article's origin in MJE acknowledged in the customary manner.
A copy of our standard form may be requested from email@example.com